Liver Disease

What is Liver Disease?


The liver is an organ that  is essential for digesting food and ridding your body of toxic substances. Liver disease can be inherited (genetic) and liver problems can also be caused by a variety of factors that damage the liver, such as viruses, alcohol use and obesity.


Over time, conditions that damage the liver can lead to scarring (cirrhosis), which can lead to liver failure, a life-threatening condition. However, early diagnosis and treatment may give the liver time to heal.

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Symptoms


Liver disease doesn't always cause noticeable signs and symptoms. Here are some signs and symptoms of liver disease:


  • Abdominal pain and swelling

  • Skin and eyes that appear yellowish (jaundice)

  • Swelling in the legs and ankles

  • Itchy skin

  • Dark urine color

  • Pale stool color

  • Chronic fatigue

  • Nausea/vomiting

  • Loss of appetite

  • Tendency to bruise easily


Causes


Liver disease has many causes.


Infection

Parasites and viruses can infect the liver, causing inflammation that reduces liver function. The viruses that cause liver damage can be spread through blood or semen, contaminated food or water, or close contact with a person who is infected. The most common types of liver infection are hepatitis viruses, including:


  • Hepatitis A

  • Hepatitis B

  • Hepatitis C


Immune system abnormality

Diseases in which your immune system attacks certain parts of your body (autoimmune) can affect your liver. Examples of autoimmune liver diseases include:


  • Autoimmune hepatitis

  • Primary biliary cholangitis

  • Primary sclerosing cholangitis


Genetics

An abnormal gene inherited from one or both of your parents can cause various substances to build up in your liver, resulting in liver damage. Genetic liver diseases include:


  • Hemochromatosis

  • Wilson's disease

  • Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency


Cancer and other growths

Examples include:

  • Liver cancer

  • Bile duct cancer

  • Liver adenoma


Other

Additional, common causes of liver disease include:


  • Chronic alcohol abuse

  • Fat accumulation in the liver (nonalcoholic fatty liver disease)

  • Certain prescription or over-the-counter medications

  • Certain herbal compounds


Risk factors


Factors that may increase your risk of liver disease include:

  • Heavy alcohol use

  • Obesity

  • Type 2 diabetes

  • Tattoos or body piercings

  • Injecting drugs using shared needles

  • Blood transfusion before 1992

  • Exposure to other people's blood and body fluids

  • Unprotected sex

  • Exposure to certain chemicals or toxins

  • Family history of liver disease


Prevention


To prevent liver disease:

  • Drink alcohol in moderation. For healthy adults, that means up to one drink a day for women and up to two drinks a day for men. Heavy or high-risk drinking is defined as more than eight drinks a week for women and more than 15 drinks a week for men.

  • Avoid risky behavior. Use a condom during sex. If you choose to have tattoos or body piercings, be picky about cleanliness and safety when selecting a shop. Seek help if you use illicit intravenous drugs, and don't share needles to inject drugs.

  • Get vaccinated. If you're at increased risk of contracting hepatitis or if you've already been infected with any form of the hepatitis virus, talk to your doctor about getting the hepatitis A and hepatitis B vaccines.

  • Use medications wisely. Take prescription and nonprescription drugs only when needed and only in recommended doses. Don't mix medications and alcohol. Talk to your doctor before mixing herbal supplements or prescription or nonprescription drugs.

  • Avoid contact with other people's blood and body fluids. Hepatitis viruses can be spread by accidental needle sticks or improper cleanup of blood or body fluids.

  • Keep your food safe. Wash your hands thoroughly before eating or preparing foods. If traveling in a developing country, use bottled water to drink, wash your hands and brush your teeth.

  • Take care with aerosol sprays. Make sure to use these products in a well-ventilated area, and wear a mask when spraying insecticides, fungicides, paint and other toxic chemicals. Always follow the manufacturer's instructions.

  • Protect your skin. When using insecticides and other toxic chemicals, wear gloves, long sleeves, a hat and a mask so that chemicals aren't absorbed through your skin.

  • Maintain a healthy weight. Obesity can cause nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.